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Understanding Pool Compliance: A Detailed Guide for HOAs in Georgia

Swimming pools are a beloved amenity in many communities, offering recreation and

relaxation for residents. However, they also pose significant safety risks, particularly for young

children. In the United States, drowning is the leading cause of injury death for children aged 1 to 4 years.

This tragic reality underscores the importance of stringent pool safety and compliance measures.

For Homeowners Associations (HOAs), understanding and adhering to all regulations is crucial to prevent accidents and ensure the well-being of all residents. With a myriad of regulations and best practices to follow, HOAs must navigate various local, state, and federal requirements. In Georgia, the Department of Public Health (DPH) oversees pool safety, but understanding all the rules can be daunting. This guide provides a comprehensive overview of the key elements of pool compliance, offering insights into ADA regulations, general safety guidelines, and specific requirements applicable in Georgia.

Identifying Legal Duties

Every legal claim related to pool injuries starts with identifying which duty was violated. This duty could arise from state regulations, county-specific rules, or federal laws. In Georgia, the DPH is tasked with overseeing pools, spas, and recreational water parks, setting forth numerous regulations to ensure public health and safety.

State and Local Regulations

The DPH rules apply to a broad range of swimming pools, spas, and recreational water parks within Georgia. However, they exclude private pools, hot tubs, spas, apartment complex pools, country club pools, and subdivision pools restricted to residents and their guests. Understanding these exclusions is crucial for HOAs to determine which rules apply to their specific pools.

Additionally, many Georgia counties have their own regulations that go beyond state rules. HOAs must familiarize themselves with these local regulations to ensure comprehensive compliance.

Key DPH Regulations


Barrier Hazards

Outdoor swimming pools and spas must be surrounded by barriers to prevent unsupervised

access, especially by children. The barrier should be at least four feet high, and access gates must be self-latching and self-closing. For added safety, the release mechanism of the self-latching device should be placed on the pool side of the gate if it is less than 4.5 feet from the bottom.

Bather Load Violations

The DPH sets specific limits on the number of people allowed in a pool at one time, based on the pool's size and different areas within it. For example, shallow or wading areas require 18 square feet per bather, while deep areas require 20 square feet per bather. Spas have a different requirement, with a maximum bather load of one person per nine square feet of surface area.

Permitting Violations

Operating a pool without a valid permit is unlawful in Georgia. Permits must be renewed annually and prominently displayed near the pool's main entrance. Any change in ownership invalidates the current permit, necessitating a new one.

Structural and Dimensional Design Violations

Pools must feature slip-resistant surfaces, especially on ladders and steps. Spas require handrails for safety. Decks should be sloped to prevent water pooling, and inlets and outlets must be designed to avoid bather entrapment. Additionally, beginner areas must not adjoin deep areas without clear visual markers, such as ropes and float lines.

Water Temperature and Chemical Hazards

The water temperature in pools and spas must not exceed 104 degrees Fahrenheit. Regular checks are required to ensure compliance. Chemical levels in the water must be carefully monitored to maintain proper disinfection without harming bathers. In the event of a fecal incident, the pool must be temporarily shut down to prevent the spread of diseases.

Warning Signs and Safety Equipment

Pools must display various warning signs, including "No Diving" markers for shallow areas. Lifesaving equipment, such as a 12-foot pole with a body hook and a ring buoy with a throwing rope, must be readily available. Additionally, a hard-wired telephone with emergency contact numbers should be installed near the pool area.

Lifeguard and Operator Training

Lifeguards must hold up-to-date, nationally recognized certifications and be responsible for pool safety and supervision. Pool operators must also be properly trained, with certification from organizations like the National Swimming Pool Foundation’s Certified Pool/Spa Operator’s Course.


Compliance Monitoring

The DPH requires pool operators to provide a valid contact number for an on-site representative. Environmental Health offices are responsible for inspecting seasonal pools for compliance before opening and once during their operating period. If pools are not staffed during normal hours, operators must provide access to inspectors via gate codes or keys.


ADA Compliance for Pools

ADA compliance is crucial for making pools accessible to all individuals, including those with disabilities. The ADA sets forth specific requirements for public accommodations, which can include pool facilities in certain residential settings.

Key ADA Requirements for Pools

  • Accessible Entrances: Pools must have at least one accessible means of entry, such as a pool lift or sloped entry.

  • Handrails and Grab Bars: These must be installed in key areas to assist individuals with mobility impairments.

  • Pathways and Parking: Accessible pathways leading to the pool area and designated parking spaces are mandatory.

  • Signage: Clear and visible signage indicating accessible routes and features must be provided.

HOAs should regularly review their facilities to ensure compliance with these ADA requirements, facilitating equal access and promoting inclusivity within their communities.


Comprehensive Pool Safety Measures

  • Inspections and Repairs: Regularly inspect the pool and surrounding areas for any damage or hazards. Promptly repair any structural issues such as cracks in the pool lining, broken tiles, or malfunctioning equipment. Ensure that all surfaces, especially ladders and steps, are slip-resistant to prevent accidents.

  • Cleaning and Sanitization: Maintain a routine cleaning schedule to keep the pool and deck areas free of debris, algae, and contaminants. Regularly check and balance chemical levels to ensure water quality and safety. This includes monitoring chlorine levels and pH balance to prevent skin irritations and other health risks.

  • Certified Lifeguards: Employ lifeguards who hold up-to-date, nationally recognized certifications such as those from the American Red Cross. Lifeguards should be trained in CPR, first aid, and emergency response.

  • Adequate Coverage: Ensure that there are enough lifeguards on duty to provide adequate supervision based on the pool's size and usage. During peak hours or special events, consider increasing the number of lifeguards on duty to maintain safety.

  • Developing Emergency Plans: Create and clearly communicate emergency procedures for various scenarios, including drownings, injuries, and severe weather. Conduct regular drills to ensure that both staff and residents are familiar with these procedures.

  • Lifesaving Equipment: Equip the pool area with essential lifesaving devices such as a pole with a body hook, a throwing rope attached to a ring buoy, and a hard-wired telephone for emergency calls. Ensure that all equipment is easily accessible and in good working condition.

  • Safety Workshops: Host regular safety workshops or meetings to educate residents about pool rules, safety practices, and emergency procedures. Provide materials in multiple languages if necessary to accommodate all residents.

  • Clear Signage: Install clear and visible signs around the pool area to remind residents of important safety rules. This includes "No Diving" signs, warnings about swimming alone, and reminders to supervise children.


Tailoring Pool Rules for Condominiums

Condominium communities present unique challenges in pool management due to shared spaces and diverse resident demographics. Here are some strategies for adapting pool rules to condominium settings:

Equitable Access

HOAs should establish guidelines to ensure all residents have fair access to pool amenities. This might involve setting usage schedules, reserving areas for different groups, and managing peak times to avoid overcrowding.

Noise and Behavior Regulations

Given the close proximity of living spaces in condominiums, HOAs should implement noise and behavior regulations to maintain a peaceful environment. This includes setting quiet hours, limiting pool parties, and enforcing respectful behavior.

Personalized Safety Measures

Condominium pools may require personalized safety measures based on resident needs. This could involve providing additional handrails, installing slip-resistant surfaces, or offering swim lessons to residents.


Special Regulations for Recreational Water Parks

Water parks have unique regulations due to their varied activities. Wave pools generating waves over three feet must not operate for more than 15 minutes at a time. Water slides require attendants at both the entrance and exit points, with effective communication between them to ensure safety.


Checklist for Ensuring Pool Compliance

To help HOAs stay on top of their responsibilities, here is a checklist of key compliance and safety measures:

Barrier Requirements

Bather Load Limits

Valid Operating Permits

Structural and Dimensional Compliance

Water Temperature and Chemical Monitoring

Warning Signs and Lifesaving Equipment

Lifeguard and Operator Training

ADA Compliance

Regular Maintenance

Emergency Procedures

Resident Education

By following this checklist, HOAs can ensure they meet legal requirements and create a safe, enjoyable environment for all residents.



Navigating pool compliance involves understanding and adhering to a complex web of regulations and best practices. For HOAs in Georgia, this means being familiar with state and local rules, maintaining ADA compliance, and implementing robust safety measures. By prioritizing these aspects and fostering a culture of safety and responsibility, HOAs can create a secure and inclusive pool environment that enhances the quality of life for their communities. Regular education, proactive maintenance, and clear communication are essential components of effective pool management.



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